Ketamine is a medication that is used to induce loss of consciousness, or anesthesia, It can produce relaxation and relieve pain in humans and animals.
It is use by medical practitioners and veterinarians as an anesthetic. It’s sometimes used illegally by people to get high.
It is a class III scheduled drug and is approved for use in hospitals.
However, it is also a commonly abused “recreational” drug, due to its hallucinogenic, tranquilizing and dissociative effects.
At lower, sub-anesthetic doses, ketamine is a promising agent for pain and treatment-resistant depression.
However, the antidepressant action of a single administration of ketamine wanes with time, and the effects of repeated use have not been sufficiently studied.
Ketamine is safe to use in controlled, medical practice, but it has abuse potential.
Used outside the approved limits, its adverse mental and physical health effects can be hazardous.
Prolonged use can lead to tolerance and psychological addiction.
Psychiatric side effects are frequent as well as raised blood pressure and nausea.
Liver and urinary toxicity are common among regular users of high doses of ketamine for recreational purposes.
Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist, and that accounts for most of its actions except the anti-depressive effect,
the mechanism of which is a matter of much research and debate.
Facts on ketamine:
- Ketamine is similar in structure to phencyclidine (PCP), and it causes a trance-like state and a sense of disconnection from the environment.
- It is the most widely used anesthetic in veterinary medicine and is used for some surgical procedures in humans.
- It is considered a “club drug,” like ecstasy, and it has been abused as a date-rape drug.
- Ketamine should only be used as prescribed by a doctor.
Ketamine belongs to a class of drugs known as dissociative anesthetics.
It is also known as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketaset.
Other drugs in this category include the hallucinogen, phencyclidine (PCP),
dextromethorphan (DXM), and nitrous oxide, or laughing gas.
These types of drugs can make a person feel detach from sensations and surroundings, as if they are floating outside their body.
HOW TO USE KETAMINE
Ketamine is mostly use in veterinary medicine. In humans, it can induce and maintain general anesthesia before, during, and after surgery.
It can be swallowed, snorted or injected.
It’s also sometimes smoke with cannabis or tobacco.
The effects of ketamine may be experience within one minute if injected, 5–15 minutes if snorted, and up to 30 minutes if swallowed.
Its effects can last for around an hour, however an individual’s coordination or senses may be influence for up to 24 hours after initial use.
It is considered safe as an anesthetic, because it does not reduce blood pressure or lower the breathing rate.
The fact that it does not need an electricity supply, oxygen, or highly trained staff makes
it a suitable optionTrusted Source in less wealthy countries and in disaster zones.
In human medical practice, it is use in procedures such as:
- cardiac catheterization
- skin grafts
- orthopedic procedures
- diagnostic procedures on the eye, ear, nose, and throat
- minor surgical interventions, such as dental extractions
It is also an analgesic, and, in lower doses, it can relieve pain.
In 2014, researchers found that a ketamine infusion significantly reduced Trusted Source symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 41 patients who had undergone a range of traumas.
USE TO TREAT DEPRESSION
Researchers for the American Psychological Association (APA) notedTrusted Source in April 2017
that a number of doctors prescribe ketamine “off-label,” for people with treatment-resistant depression.
The FDA has not yet approved it for treating depression.
In a study published in BMC Medical Ethics, researchers urge doctorsTrusted Source to “minimize the risk to patients”
by considering carefully the evidence before prescribing ketamine off-label for patients to treat depression and prevent suicide.
Citing “questionable practice” regarding the prescription of ketamine,
they point out that there is not enough evidence to prove that ketamine is safe,
and that some studies supporting its use have not been sufficiently strong in terms of research ethics.
They call for open debate, more research, and for doctors to try all other options first, before prescribing ketamine.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are currently supporting research into whether ketamine may help people with treatment-resistant depression.
EFFECTS OF KETAMINE
There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.
Ketamine affects everyone differently, based on:
- size, weight and health
- whether the person is use to taking it
- whether other drugs are consume around the same time
- the amount taken
- the strength of the drug (varies from batch to batch)
Ketamine use can have some really adverse effects, including:
- changes in perceptions of color or sound
- hallucinations, confusion, and delirium
- dissociation from body or identity
- difficulty thinking or learning
- dilated pupils and changes in eyesight
- inability to control eye movements
- involuntary muscle movements and muscle stiffness
- slurred speech
- slow heart beat
- behavioral changes
- increased pressure in the eyes and brain
It can also lead to a loss of appetite, upset stomach, and vomiting.
When used as an anesthetic in humans, doctors combine it with another drug to prevent hallucinations.
people always wonder and ask questions;
can someone overdose on ketamine?
If you take a large amount of this drug or have a strong batch, you could overdose.
The risk of death from ketamine alone is low, due to its ability to cause unconsciousness with minimal impact on airway reflexes or blood circulation.
However, individuals are at a higher risk of physical harm/accidents while under the influence of the drug.
- Call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000) if you or someone else has any of these symptoms (ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police): inability to move, rigid muscles
- high blood pressure, fast heartbeat
- unconsciousness and ‘near death’ experiences
Giving up ketamine after a long time is challenging because the body has to get use to functioning without it.
Please seek advice from a health professional. Symptoms include:
- cravings for ketamine
- no appetite
- chills, sweating
- restlessness, tremors
- nightmares, anxiety, depression
- irregular and rapid heartbeat
- risk of inujry
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